Moreover, stress-related corticosteroids and opiates increase the susceptibility to infectious diseases especially chorioamnionitis that may lead to adverse outcomes of pregnancy . On the other hand, indirect negative influence on neonatal outcomes must also be taken into consideration, because stressed women are more likely to smoke cigarettes or use alcohol and caffeine .
Nuo pat Universiteto atkūrimo siekiama atsižvelgti į individualius poreikius, sudaryti vienodas sąlygas visiems studentams, todėl negalia nėra kliūtis tapti universiteto akademinės bendruomenės nariu. Universitete kasmet studijuoja per įvairių negalių turinčių studentų.
The relationship between antenatal maternal personality traits and neonatal outcomes has not been widely studied. But some personality traits might predispose maternal behavior that interferes with well-being of the fetus. For brunelio universiteto dizainas ir prekės ženklo strategija ma, high levels of neuroticism are associated with higher levels of anxiety and stressfulness  that in turn might have negative influence on neonatal outcomes .
Also, personality traits might modulate emotional as well as endocrine response to psychosocial stressors . The increased reactivity to psychosocial stressors might be predisposed by certain personality traits and cause changes in hormonal profile which may lead to an unfavorable environment to the fetus [5, 11].
Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between antenatal maternal psychosocial stress, antenatal maternal personality traits and anthropometric measurements of the neonates. In a period of — pregnant woman attending 2 obstetric clinics in Kaunas, Lithuania, were randomly invited to participate in the study.
Three-hundred and seven pregnant woman agreed to participate in the study and were evaluated by psychiatrist L. Women were also interviewed about smoking and use of alcohol during pregnancy.
From a sample of women who agreed to participate in the study we randomly selected women and obtained birth delivery medical case histories after they delivered a birth. Impact of personality dimensions and stress Table 1. Moreover, animal studies found that infusion of noradrenaline decreases uterine blood flow in pregnant sheep and reproductive tissues of sheep were found to be more sensitive to vasoconstrictive effect of noradrenaline when compared to other body tissues .
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So, it has been suggested that at time of stress mother protects herself in expense of the fetus . Furthermore, stress during pregnancy might have negative effect on cognitive capabilities of the offspring during infancy  and childhood . Huiznik et al. Also, antenatal maternal exposure to stress and traumatic life events was found to be associated with altered adult outcomes, such as increased lifetime risk of development psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia  and affective disorders .
Mados režisūros magistras: Prekės ženklo ir komunikacijos valdymas
Van Os and Selten  found that offspring of mothers who witnessed the German invasion to the Netherlants in s while being pregnant had significantly higher risk of developing schizophrenia in later adulthood. Antenatal personality traits were not significant predictors of anthropometric characteristics of the neonates.
But we think that large prospective studies evaluating the influence of antenatal maternal personality traits on well-being of the neonates are needed, because certain personality traits might predispose behavior that could interfere with development of the fetus.
In a recent study it was found that pregnant women who were afraid of delivering a child were more anxiety-prone, more short-tempered, and lower in socialization when compared to control pregnant women . Personality traits of Socialization and Monotony avoidance were found to be significantly different before birth delivery between mothers who request brunelio universiteto dizainas ir prekės ženklo strategija ma cesarean section and those who do not .
Also, use of alcohol during pregnancy correlates with impulsive personality traits . On the other hand some personality traits might act as protective factors for fetus.
biologinÄ psichiatrija - Psichofiziologijos ir reabilitacijos institutas ...
A recent study found that less openness and higher neuroticism were associated with blunted HPA axis responses to psychological stress in women. In this study, besides antenatal maternal stress and personality traits, we analyzed the influence of maternal age, number of gestations, duration of pregnancy, gender of neonates and use of alcohol as well as smoking during pregnancy, on anthropometric characteristics of the neonates.
There are more pathological and physiological factors that have negative influence on the duration of gestation and fetal growth that we did not include into our analysis, such as hypertension, chronic maternal illness, maternal addiction to drugs, malnutrition, infection, maternal height and weight, socio-economic conditions and others [28, 29].
The main limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size 97 neonates. On the other hand the strengths of this study included community-based population from a defined geographical area of Lithuania, the measurements of perceived psychosocial stress and evaluation of personality traits were performed by psychiatrist, using standardized instruments.
Results of this study indicate that a higher level of perceived acute psychosocial stress in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with smaller height of the neonates. Women who perceived no to medium acute psychosocial stress in the third trimester of pregnancy delivered significantly taller neonates when compared to women who perceived severe to catastrophic acute psychosocial stress in the third trimester of pregnancy.
- Galima padaryti šias išvadas.
- biologinÄ psichiatrija - Psichofiziologijos ir reabilitacijos institutas
- Спросила Николь.
Antenatal maternal personality traits are not associated with anthropometric characteristics of the neonates. References: 1. Buekens P. Halpern R. Talge N. Antenatal maternal stress and long-term effects on child neurodevelopment: how and why? Dole N. Copper R. Rondo P. Omer H. McAnarney E. John O. Pervin, O. John eds. Handbook of personality: Theory and research.
Mados režisūros magistras: Produktų tvarumo valdymas
Oswald L. Bunevicius A. Antenatal maternal mental state and anthropometric characteristics of the neonates: I. American Psychiatric Association. Wadhwa P. Chrousos G. Regulation and dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. North Am. Teixeira J. Starkman M. Rosenfield C.